Opening Up my Practice (Post 5/5) #pgcap

There doesn’t appear to be a one size fits all definition for open education resources (“OER”). For some there is some debate about what constitutes an OER. The least complex description I could find for OER is provided by JISC, in that they suggest (quite neatly) that “Open educational resources (OER) are learning and teaching materials, freely available online for anyone to use. Examples include full courses, course modules, lectures, games, teaching materials and assignments. They can take the form of text, images, audio, video and may even be interactive.” (JISC 2013). open

This appears to sum up the elements of OER well, notwithstanding other author’s complaints that it is too simplistic. But in the spirit of trying to keep jargon and complexity to a minimum, I am satisfied that this description does what it says on the tin. The continued debate about the future of HE and the longevity of the traditional physical lecture rattle on and some have become increasingly concerned with the rise of the MOOC. I am not wholly convinced that MOOC’s (of any description) will replace traditional teaching and learning methods, however I think there is support for a blend of both face-to-face and online material which complement one another well. The advantage of OER means that there is a greater potential for widening participation and encouraging a more inclusive environment for non-traditional a means of understanding the nature of the MOOC, its place in the HE arena and in consideration of UKPSF (UKPSF-A5) I undertook the Coursera E-learning and digital cultures MOOC which was provided by The University of Edinburgh and I found this to be really very useful, in that, I can see both sides of the coin now. I have had the luxury of being able to appreciate the ability of accessing material that has been made open for all learners in the context that it was intended for use.

Recently the JISC held asked Are Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), open badges and open educational resources (OER) the future of learning, during a conference in December 2013. They want to explore whether the open education resources provide opportunities for new knowledge and collaboration. Although I didn’t participate in the conference I followed the twitter update and came across some interesting ideas from those who were actively involved.

In particular one tweet came to my attention where the commentator proposed that open badges were only useful if employers recognised them.

I agreed with this comment and would probably extend it to employers being able recognise, understand and appreciate the value in open education with particular reference to MOOC’s. I contacted a couple of people from my industry networks and they were vaguely aware of what a MOOC was but didn’t really see the added value for their businesses in encouraging employee participation. I do tend to think a lot about employability when designing material and content for modules because I am conscious that I want the learners to have the ability to practically apply their knowledge in a supportive environment, however if an employer does not understand or indeed have any aware of OER’s then it could be difficult to translate their importance.

Indeed I also question the quality of some OER and would want to ensure that the learners were clear about making sure that they were accessing material that was truly open and fit for purpose. There is an overwhelming amount of information available on the internet some of which provided little evidence of academic credibility. When I critically reflect on my practice in terms of OER I believe there is significant room for improvement and I have compiled an action plan for the current cohort’s next module.

  • Make use of platforms such as slideshare and twitter to facilitate distance learners in accessing information. This might also provide non university students with access to the information (UKPSF V2). In addition this may assist in the University being recognised for providing OER.
  • Explore and network within my school attempting to identify if others are involved with or provide their material in OER format (UKPSF A5).
  • Utilise Jorum for to gather and share material (UKPSF V2)

A Guide to Open Education Resources (2013)  Retrieved from:

Judah, D., (5 December 2013) [@djudah] #RCSonline open badge only successful, Retrieved from:

MOOCs, Badges and open education resources: online conference, (2013) retrieved from:

The Higher Education Academy (2011) UK Professional Standards Framework. Available from:


How do I support my students and opportunities for further improvement? (Post 4/5) #pgcap

“the more didactic pedagogy of face-to-face lecturing does not translate well onto the net…”  Weller(2003)

Edinburgh Napier provide an excellent example of implementation of the Enhance, Extend, Empower “3E” framework which may support learners. The model proposes stages of a continuum to engage assist and support learners in their technological related activities .support_people250_1_250

  • Enhance
  • Extend
  • Empower

Keith Smyth of Edinburgh Napier states that it challenging for those responsible for designing online content to mimic real life classroom situations and further suggests ways in which educators can mitigate the loss of face to face contact by utilising the “3E” framework. He suggests educators must not divorce the need for learners to feel reassured and supported from the requirement to produce blended learning outputs for distance or on-line courses. I agree because I often think about the changes I am making to my teaching practice retrospectively.  There is opportunity to support my learners earlier in a module by providing them with a voice in the process. I wonder about the scope of designing a framework for on-line material and involving students in week one with choices and input into how they want to be supported. Is it appropriate for me to make arbitrary decisions about the level and type of support my learners require or want without at least canvassing their opinion? This does provide a challenge for module planning and may require significant front end work to ensure a quality and appropriate range of options are available for the learners.

Keith’s collaborate session in FDOL suggest there are a number of considerations; 3E I  don’t think any are mutually exclusive, moreover it is important that they are all considered in the wider context for developing on-line material.

The most important is that of starting small and considering our audience. How much and how intensive should the support be? It will vary from learner to learner, having peaks and troughs. Curve for support My example of this curve indicates, the support will vary over time. I do think that using the “3E” framework: UKPSF (A4,K3,K4,V4) provides evidence that this is successful way in which on-line learning and use of technology can be integrated well into modules. Weller (2003:65) argues face to face lecturing does not translate well into on-line learners and that the focus of on-line material needs to be evolve and focus less on the educators and more on the learner and this will assist in providing a more distinct and attractive option for the learner. I really like this as in the previous module (LTHE) of this course my emphasis was always about what it was doing to me and I think my frame of mind has really changed throughout this module, because I am focusing much more on an learner centred approach (Biggs and Tang 2011).

Although there are no obvious critics of the 3E Framework, Leeds Metropolitan University (Scan QR code) have gone further and developed the framework to include a fourth element. They argue that it is should not be just using technology for technologies sake.qrcode.18542753

In asking how technology can enrich our learning experiences they explore how, “technology is being implemented to “enrich” the learning experience. Using technology as an “enricher” requires staff and students to think about how technology & digital assets can make learning more rewarding & meaningful.

An example of “enriching” would be the development of a global online community where students interacted with students, academics & professionals in other countries.  I also started to think about whether they are any variations for the 3E framework when considering mobile technology and given the overarching theme in this module, it might be helpful to reflect the support learners need when they are mobile and whether this is any different from “traditional” distance/on-line learners?


Biggs, J., &Tang, C., Teaching for Quality Learning at University, The Society of Higher Education, Fouth Ed, McGraw Hill, London.

Franchise Framework (2013) Leeds Metropolitan University, Retrieved from

Smyth, K., (2013) The 3E Framework [Webinar], Retrieved from:

The 3E framework explained, (2012), Retrieved 26 November 2013 from:

The Higher Education Academy (2011) UK Professional Standards Framework. Available from:

Weller, Martin. (2003). Delivering learning on the Net the why, what & how of online education. London New York: Routledge Falmer.

How I extend collaborative learning using digital technologies. Post (3/5) #pgcap

I recently completed a MOOC (UKPSF – A5,K2,V2) in an attempt to understand what all the fuss was about and on reflection, I did feel quite isolated, which further makes me think about what could I have done for myself to improve the experience and conversely what could I do to make my learners experience better. Is the answer rooted in providing a collaborative learning environment for my students?

Strip PBL The ScenarioSmith and McGregor (1992) suggest that “collaborative learning describes the many educational approaches involving joint intellectual effort by students, or students and teachers together. Most collaborative learning activities focus on the student’s exploration and application of the course material, not the teacher’s presentation of it”.  I identify with exploration as being a key part of learning. If the learning activity or experience doesn’t challenge the learner, then what is the point? There is a question about whether learning to collaborate is part of the intended learning outcome.

Kaye (1992) supports Smith and McGregor and suggest “collaborative learning is the acquisition by individuals of knowledge, skills, or attitudes occurring as a result of group interaction or put more tersely, individual learning as a result of group process”. I prefer Kaye’s description because it infers that the collaborative learning process becomes almost implicit for the learner as they mature in the learning cycle.

Thinking about the make-up and design of specific modules, am I ask, how will this be received from my students? Am I considerate of their various learning styles and are activities absolutely aligned with the ILO’s thus maximising the students opportunity to learn. I am not sure that this is always the case I would expect to reflect on the UK PSF (A1,A4,K1,K2,K4). My plan is to seek a range of activities which would incorporate appropriate learning technology. Recently I gave my learners a particular article to read which specifically relates added value. One of the key outcomes of this article was related to the lack of credibility they have as practitioners relating to technology and the application and use of it by employees. Thus it makes absolute sense to me to allow students to practice and make mistakes in a virtual manner in order to give them a well-rounded experience. My plan therefore is to begin a phased project which will begin with an email exchange which I hope will complete with the students having their own community to share knowledge with one another.

Sue Beckingham piqued my interest in the zone of proximal development, having never come across this before and I found it really useful and wanted to explore its nature and meaning. I found a very simplistic description of this which states that the zone of proximal development is “the distance between the student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the students ability solving the problem independently”. This felt like almost a very reductionist way to explain what is essentially a complex theory, but it makes sense to me. The question arising from this is how I can build that bridge for the students and how involved should I be getting in their activities.

I have included this youtube clip because it made me think again of the process of learning and in a similar fashion to Vygotsky, Piaget examines the stages of learning in children. It makes me reflect that my own return to being a student is like learning to think all over again.

Anon. (2011, 17 January 2011) Vygotsky: Social Development Theory [Weblog] Retrieved from:

Kaye, A., (1992). Learning together apart, Collaborative Learning Trough Computer Conferencing, NATO ASI Series. Springer Verlag, Berlin.

Page, L., (2013) Can virtual classrooms beat face-to-face interaction? The Guardian retrieved from 13 November 2013

Smith, B.L., MacGregor, J.T.,  (1992). What is collaborative learning? A Sourcebook for Higher Education, p 9 – 22. National Centre on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment, Pennsylvania State University.

The Higher Education Academy (2011) UK Professional Standards Framework. Available from:

My digital teaching practice and opportunities for change (Post 2/5) #pgcap


Digital teaching practice

Eights words in the title of this post – seems innocent enough, however when you include the word change in the sentence, it changes the way that I feel about it.  Is there the opportunity for change in my digital teaching practice? I assume the correct answer is yes. But what about what I already do. Is that good enough? How will I know when it is?

My use of Blackboard (VLE) is probably lacking somewhat. I do the required amount of activity in there, but am I using it to its full potential? I am not sure that that I can give a yes response! So what to do?

I began considering what everyone else (other educators) are doing and about the modules that I have been enrolled on and I have spent time examining ones which stood out in terms of their usefulness and quality of content. I felt it was important to be aware of others practice and consider whether it was appropriate to incorporate any within my own teaching practice. (UKPSF A2).

The issue with VLE is to understand what material is needed and ensuring its placement provides ease of accessibility for the learners. Can it be as simple as ensuring that clear signposting for materials and activities will be the thing that turns it around for me? Coomey and Stephenson (2001) led me to think about the common features of online learning and how I might facilitate opportunities for my students to engage with the module. The more salient points in the article should assist me in developing material for further engagement within the VLE. The argue that; dialogue – regardless of the form of dialogue (email/real-time chat/asynchronous chat / group discussions, etc), needs to be carefully structured into the course in order for it to be productive and successful. No assumptions can be made that the learners will automatically want to or be able to jump directly into online conversations. So how can the tutor mitigate this? Beaudin (1999) and Bonk (1999) think tutors need to provide guidance and facilitation throughout to ensure that targeted questions which will help keep everything on track. Smyth (2012) argues that the tutor needs to start small and think about the learners needs.

Coomey and Stephenson suggest in addition to dialogue, involvement is important; the tutor cannot make assumptions that everyone will want to be fully involved in every element of the module. Providing adequate feedback and structuring a ‘flow’ throughout the module will assist. Dee Lucas (1999) argues that students who use systems with more clearly defined hypertext  tend to find solutions faster.

Support was the most frequently mentioned element in. They comment that support includes a range of activity including face to face contact, online contact, peer support, advice from experts, feedback on performance, support services and software tools. They propose that although delivered differently, online students have a similar expectation to students taught in a more traditional fashion, in terms of feedback etc. A proper framework should facilitate the role of the tutor as being “clear and defined”.

Finally they discuss control. I find the connotations of the word negative and made assumptions about what it might include even before I had read the article thoroughly. Actually the context of control in this element is the controls of timing, choice of content, management of learning activities and control of the overall direction and assessment of performance. I agree with their contention that someone with little / no prior experience should not be solely responsible for constructing the learner’s experiences.

In conclusion the elements needed for online learning are practical and necessary to its success. I would imagine that a more recent review of the same topic might draw out further elements such as the use of mobile technology and how this is shaping the landscape of module today.

Dee-Lucas, D (1999) Hypertext segmentation and goal compatibility: effects on study

strategies and learning, Journal of Educational Media and Hypermedia, 8 (3), pp


Beaudin, B (1999) Keeping online asynchronous discussions on topic, Journal of

Asynchronous Learning Networks, 3 (2),

Bonk, C J (1999) Breakout from learner issues, International Journal of Educational

Telecommunication, 5 (4), pp 387-410.

The Higher Education Academy (2011) UK Professional Standards Framework. Available from:

The Digital me: past, present, future. (Post 1/5) #pgcap

My first foray into using the internet came about as a result of my parents. They were early adopters (at least by Irish standards) and were the first among their friends, family and neighbours to have the internet at home.  It was awful; the dial up speed was about -200000 bytes per minute. Really clunky and not at all like it is today.  Mind you I am referring to the internet in Ireland in the early nineties. However even in my naivety, I always thought that the internet (in some fashion) would be part of my future.

I wonder whether because of my parents early adoption, I never felt fazed by technology and saw it as access to different cultures, lifestyles and anything that allowed me to escape the mundane life of the rural countryside. I vividly remember getting my first mobile phone – it was like my access to all things cool and cosmopolitan.

The Irish secondary education curriculum didn’t include IT or ICT while I was attending and to be honest I am fairly sure that the Presentation Convent nuns saw computers and the internet as the instruments of the devil to be avoided at all costs. I am sure there was talk at one time that the internet could even get a young one in the family way! So the absence of IT in my schooling meant that I used technology predominantly for leisure.

Once I started university in the UK I started to get more involved in ICT which I guess where my educational use of technology evolved. This was done on a very individual basis in that; there wasn’t any real opportunity at the time to use technology to collaborate with my peers or the teaching staff in an online space. However, Wegerif (2007) suggests that “in the last two decades there has been a development of research on computer supported collaborative learning” and this research utilises socio-cultural and situated learning theory.  The idea of a more collaborative approach to learning incorporating the use of technology is something that appeals to me. The appeal stems form the range of skills that can be developed; self reflection, co-construction of knowledge and meaning and critical thinking (Choing and Jovanovich 2012). When I consider the use of digital media in the classroom and how this is going to work particularly in this semester I am inclined to think about how this will align with the UKPSF K3 (Understanding how students learn both generally and within their specialist subject), it will be necessary to consider and review the content of the module to include appropriate material/theory to scaffold their understanding and develop their knowledge and experience.

In terms of my social media digital presence now – well how long is a piece of string???  here are a few of the ones I use most frequently.

google plustwitterskypefacebookpintresttumblrlinkedinyoutube

On the whole I guess I use twitter and linkedin professionally and most of the others are personal use. My PhD research focuses on how employers use social media for the purposes of recruitment and selection activities and as I review the literature I have become increasingly concerned about living in the “digital panopticon”(Ross 2009) . I worry about my privacy and my online C.V. in terms of future opportunities and whether my digital presence may hamper my future job opportunities. Equally I worry about my learners and their ability to share knowledge safely online and given the culture of surveillance we live in, I am concerned that their opinions at early stages of their careers could hurt them professionally in the future.   The clip included in this post focuses on the “digital me” and what we need to be considering.

In terms of the future of technology, I am conscious that I need to narrow my efforts down to a couple of social media avenues and concentrate on building up my online identity and focus on producing a positive internet presence.


Choing, R. & Jonanovic, J., (2012) Collaborative learning in online study groups: An evolutionary game theory perspective, Journal of Information Technology: Research Vol 12.

Ross, J.M. (2009). The Digital Panopticon Retrieved 12/06/13, from

The Higher Education Academy (2011) UK Professional Standards Framework. Available from:

Wegerif, Rupert. (2007). Dialogic Education and Technology Expanding the Space of Learning. Boston, MA: Boston, MA : Springer US.

Wells, J., (2013) My Digital Identity, Retrieved from October 2013

Game Reflection 5/6

“We may think we’re pretty smart, but in fact we have very little notion of how humans learn. Kids know: They play games. Until, that is, they go to school. That’s when the games stop. And often, so does the learning”

McKay (March 2013)

I was not able to attend “game week” in this module and as such I attempted to complete the assigned task independently.  What became apparent fairly quickly is that playing a game on your own can become pretty boring. Not being able to bounce my ideas of anyone on the day meant to I had to go with my gut instinct that I was approaching it in the correct way and that my game was “fun”. Was it fun? How can you measure fun? Brown (2010) suggests that we all have a game style. Although there is little grounded theory or research to back up this contention, I attempted to try to identify my play personality.  The one that I felt I could most align myself with was “the storyteller”. The story-tellers imagination is central to their play, reading and trying to experience the emotions of the characters in their stories are signifiers of this play type. I often let my imagination run wild about various things like what will happen to my life if I don’t successfully pass my interim assessment, internal evaluation, viva. It’s a pretty dark place in my imagination, but it wasn’t always like this. When I was growing up a lot of my play was done independently and involved various imaginary scenarios where I was stranded on a desert island, or had to rescue my various charges (dolls, teddy’s and the such like) from treacherous pirates.  Maybe playing independently is something I just didn’t remember and because I have spent most of my adult life working in teams it was just like remembering how to ride a bike, only I am a bit rusty.

My threshold concept was about the “value of planning when designing and delivering a training session”. I chose this because as Meyer and Land (2006) suggest identifying a threshold concept “enables teachers to make a refined decision about what is fundamental to a grasp of the subject they are teaching”. In the study of Human Resource Management, understanding the value of planning is something which is woven through every part of the processes that the learners will have to deal with in their chosen HRM careers. It is also something that is difficult to measure. There is no on formula that measures return on investment and thus it felt vitally important that they grasp the concept of planning stages and could identify the limitations and barriers to successful planning. Meyer and Land also argue that understanding a threshold concept is irreversible and getting it right is key because you cannot unlearn the concept and relearn it right. They suggest that it is why teachers often have trouble remembering the early days of their own learning and attempt to overcrowd the curriculum in an attempt to include all possibilities that might emerge for the learners when in reality the design of the curriculum would be better served identifying one or two threshold concepts and designing the programme around this.

When choosing my “prop” I wanted to keep in line with the rules of the game and limited myself to selecting something that costs three pounds or less. I started to think about what might be the best way to explain my threshold concept and this led me to thinking about what I do day to day. I decided to choose a recipe book from slimming world as this is something that I felt I could be able to explain in broken down parts and the value of planning meals would lead to the right correlation of calories and expended energy resulting in a weight loss the following week at a slimming club. I was able to identify with the threshold concept in a much easier way. Thinking outside the box in relation to how I could best explain a threshold concept allowed more scope for being able to use my imagination and led me back to something I do in a solitary fashion – play.

Brown (2010) also suggest that play can be empowering and I have to admit I do think the ability to identify my play personality and expose my addiction to diet clubs (to the whole class!) did feel empowering and it is something that I know I will be able to adopt in the class room. I made the rookie error of introducing socrative as an assessment tool in relation to the reading in this module, what I should have done was introduce it as a game and allow the students to think about it in a way that was non-threatening. I intend to introduce it in the next module at the beginning as a game and build up its use over the weeks of the module. I also intend to ask the students to attempt to identify what they think the threshold concept is in the module and separate into two groups where they will be responsible for designing a game for the other group. I intend to do this instead of a formal assessed presentation in the next round.  Some of the feedback from my professional discussion (addressed in a different post) focused on my allowing the learners to be more independent and setting up an assessment that is “fun” feels like it might be a suitable way to address both ideas.


Brown, S., (2010) Play how is shapes the brain opens the imagination and invigorates the soul, Penguin, New York

McKay, R.F., (2013) Playing to learn: Panelists at Stanford discussion say using games as an educational tool provides opportunities for deeper learning, Stanford News retrieved from: 14 April 2013

Meyer, J.H.F., Land, R. and Davies, P. (2006), Implications of threshold concepts for course design and evaluation, in Meyer, J.H.F. and Land, R. (eds.), Overcoming Barriers to Student Understanding: threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge,London and NewYork: Routledge.

Mentor Observation: Relfection 6/6

Pre-observation Form
Observer’s Name – Sue Gill
Module & Session title: Developing the Human Resource – Learning Theory

Mode: Lecture
Number of learners 3

Learners: They are part time students that work full time in Human Resource Management. They have varying experience in the field but understand the principles and practice of the discipline.

Learning outcomes to be achieved during the session

  • —  Explain Learning Theory
  • —  Compare and Contrast Learning Theory in your organisation
  • —  Critically Analyse Learning Theory Brief session outline

The session starts with an introduction to what we will be covering today. We are doing a socrative quiz to examine the level of reading undertaken.

This session will cover main theory related to Learning and will be spread out over two weeks. This session is part one of two and we will be discussing who a learning needs analysis affects within an organisations context. What are the considerations that Learning and Development or HR professionals need to take into consideration. It will assist the students in preparing for an upcoming assignment that they are required to complete as part of the assessment for the course.

Rationale for session

The session will use power point presentation as the main tool. We usually use the whiteboard to make notes of our discussions so that the students can take notes as they go along.

It will also include the use of socrative (e-learning technology)

As the group is relatively small we usually are quite informal and I ask for a lot of feedback from the students in relation to what their practical experience is of l&d in this own organisations. Knowledge and experience sharing forms a large part of our sessions.

Are there any aspects of the session you would like the observer to focus on?

General style feedback would be good as would some indication of range of technology and student involvement in the session.

My reflections Credibility

Key words from my mentor feedback; Students engaged / good rapport / silly errors undermining credibility / good range of use of technology / students were interested / too long between activities / timeliness / picking up when students don’t understand a concept / allow time for students to ask questions

This post was done with both a video blog and this post. The reason that I chose to capture some of my thoughts via video blog is, sometimes I think it is important to see or hear the person behind the blog. Listening back to what I have to say about the experience of my mentor feedback has allowed me to critically reflect on how it made me feel and in addition what were the key “take away” points for me to consider.

My mentor is also the person who I deliver the module on behalf of so there was a real sense that how I performed in this session really mattered (that is not to say that how I performed in any of the observed sessions didn’t; this just felt really close to home). I wanted her to have absolute trust and confidence in my ability and professionalism. On the whole as outlined in the video blog the feedback was very positive (almost too positive) but there was a particular point that Sue picked me up on and that was my attention to detail in relation to how I presented the material to my students.

Credibility is essential two components (trust and expertise) I liked to have thought that I had built up trust with my learners and to a degree I think that I have achieved this, however what I didn’t give any thought to was how sloppy some of my presentation was coming across. Is my rushing to get everything done undermining the trust the leaners have in my expertise? Very possibly! The crux of the matter is would I have trust in the content of a session if there were spelling or grammatical errors contained in it. Probably not; so why did or do I think that my learners will have absolute trust and confidence in my ability if I don’t practice what I preach.

What can I do about this? The obvious answer is around taking more time editing, proof reading my presentations to ensure that the learners are getting the best of me. Well I think that this is something that I owe them so why hadn’t I done it? Haskins (2000) suggests “Whether at the conscious or unconscious level, a student’s perception of the teacher’s ethos, or speaker’s character, has an important impact on how he or she will react to the teacher and how effective the teacher will be in the classroom. Erosion of a teacher’s ethos can quickly spell disaster in the classroom”

What are my learner’s perceptions of my teaching and credibility? Are they of the mind that my content displays a sloppy character and that I am too busy to focus on what is important and am I a hypocrite because I pick them up on spelling and grammar in assignment but don’t then explicitly make sure that my own content is polished? There is a real danger in me undermining their confidence in my expertise. My learners are all working towards a professional qualification and in terms of professional conduct there are bound by the CIPD (2012) professional code of conduct (as I am) which explicitly states that members should;

  1. Ensure that they provide a professional, up-to-date and insightful service
  2. Accept responsibility for their own professional actions and decisions.
  3. Apply professional high standards of relevance, accuracy and timeliness in the information and advice they provide to stakeholders

Is this not clear enough to warrant the highest quality teaching that I can give to the students at all times to ensure that I assist them with being able to adopt and live the code of conduct as best they can?

What about the UKPSF framework. One of the key aims of the framework is to “demonstrate to students and other stakeholders the professionalism that staff and institutions bring to teaching and support for student learning” In order to be properly aligned with this I understand that it will be necessary to ensure that the materials available are of the highest quality.


Haskins, W. (2000, March 3). Ethos and pedagogical communication: Suggestions for enhancing credibility in the classroom. Current Issues in Education [On-line], 3(4). Available:

Chartered Insitute of Personnel Development (2012) Code of Conduct, Retrieved from 16/04/13

The Higher Education Academy (2011) The UK professional standards framework for teaching and supporting learning in higher education. Available (online)